It is among the orthopedic disorders that are frequently seen in infancy. The condition that the spinal cord on the spinal system remains open is called spina bifida. Due to the anatomical structure of a healthy baby, the spine is covered with a membrane. The sequencing continues in the form of the bone system, spinal cord, muscle surface and skin.
What is Spina Bifida?
What is spina bifida Spina bifida, which means split spine as the root of the word, mostly occurs on the lumbar region. It occurs in the early stages of pregnancy. It occurs as a result of damage to the nervous system around the spinal cord of the baby, whose development continues in the mother’s womb. As a result, there is a loss of movement and sensation at different levels.
Types of Spina Bifida
There are many types of spina bifida, which is a congenital disease seen in babies, depending on the region and shape of the spine. The duration of influencing the patient varies according to the level of the opening on the spinal canal. In advanced levels, as a result of damage to the nervous system in the brain, there is a regression in the development of intelligence.
Why Does Spina Bifida Occur?
Spina bifida, which causes loss of muscle control in patients with the negative effect of the nervous system, is diagnosed in infancy. Babies have some orthopedic problems. Loss of sensation in the legs is common. Spinal curvature, called scoliosis, occurs. It causes various health problems such as loss of function in the knee and hip joints, dislocations and outward deformation of the legs.
There is no clear information about the cause of the disease. It is estimated that the baby is formed in the mother’s womb during the first months of development. There are many possibilities, such as the health status of the patient’s family members and other external factors. If we list the reasons for the occurrence of the disease in detail:
Taking medications that lower folic acid levels
Vitamin B9 is important for the developing baby in the womb. If it is at low levels, it increases the possibility of congenital diseases.
There may be people with a history of genetic diseases among family members. It can adversely affect the musculoskeletal system health of newborn babies. However, it is known that there are babies born with spina bifida although there is no family history of the disease.
Especially during the first weeks of pregnancy, the expectant mother uses some medications due to her existing diseases. These are taken for treatment purposes. However, it reduces folic acid and other vitamins important for the development of the baby.
Diabetes mellitus, which occurs in expectant mothers as a result of not being able to control the level of sugar in the blood, may cause babies to be born with the diagnosis of spina bifida.
Damage to the neural tube structure as a result of excessive weight gain in women increases the likelihood of congenital diseases.
Body temperature is usually observed at a high level in expectant mothers. Activities such as Turkish bath and hot shower should be avoided. It is estimated that this negatively affects the spinal health of the baby, whose development process continues in the womb.
What Are the Symptoms of Spina Bifida?
Spina bifida treatment In infants, the disease called spina bifida occurs when the spinal canal is not completely closed formally. It is observed at different levels in each patient. Some types of the disease called spina bifida aperta can be clearly detected during physical examination. However, spina bifida occulta, which progresses in a closed manner, cannot be noticed when the spine structure is viewed from the outside.
First, there are some symptoms of spina bifida aperta disease. Swelling and puffiness are seen on the spine structure without the need for any X-ray procedure. The baby’s hair follicles may come out at a more intense rate on the spine. Another symptom is the presence of some holes on the back. It should be examined by a specialist doctor. Finally, with the accumulation of fat on the problematic skin, some spinal structures under the skin are exposed.
ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY SPECIALIST
prof. dr. hasan hilmi muratlı